What is admiralty and maritime law?Law derived from the general maritime law of nations, modified by Congress. Applicable not only on the high seas but also on all navigable waterways in the United States.
What did the Supreme Court hold in Baker v. Carr?U. S. Supreme Court ruling (1962) that legislative apportionment could be challenged and reviewed by federal courts.
What is bankruptcy?Legal procedure under federal law by which a person is relieved of all debts after placing all property under the court
What is a Writ of Certiorari?Writ issued by the U. S. Supreme Court, at its discretion, to order a lower court to prepare the record of a case and send it to the Court for review. Most cases come to the Court as petitions for writs of certiorari.

What was the Constitutional Convention?Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 that framed the Constitution of the United States.
What are constitutional courts?Federal courts created by Congress under its power under Article III of the Constitution to create courts inferior to the Supreme Court.
What is a court of last resort?Court from which there is no appeal.
What is a diversity case (diversity of citizenship case)?Specific type of federal lawsuit between citizens of two different states in which the amount in controversy exceeds $50,000.

What are divisions (in federal court system)?In federal courts, places where U. S. district courts conduct business within the district.
What is the dual court system?Court system consisting of a separate judicial structure for each state in addition to a national structure. Each case is tried in a court of the same jurisdiction as that of the law or laws involved.
What is geographical jurisdiction?Physical area over which courts can hear and decide disputes.
Define hierarchical jurisdiction.Refers to differences in the functions of courts and involves original as opposed to appellate jurisdiction.

What is jurisdiction?Power of a court to hear a case in question.
What are legislative courts?Judicial bodies created by the U. S. Congress under Article I (legislative article) and not Article III (judicial article).
Who is a magistrate?Judicial officer having jurisdiction to try minor criminal cases and conduct preliminary examinations of persons charged with serious crimes.
What did the Supreme Court hold in Marbury v. Madison?U. S. Supreme Court ruling (1803) that established the power of the Court to review acts of Congress and declare invalid those it found in conflict with the Constitution.

What is a panel?Group of appellate judges, less than the full membership of the court, assigned to review a case on appeal.
What is a penitentiary?A federal prison for people convicted of serious crimes.
What is reapportionment?Redrawing of legislative district lines to reflect changed conditions. Typically, in the United States, performed to reflect population shifts following each decennial census.
What is a record (court record)?Written or taped account of all of the acts and proceedings in an action or suit in a court of record.

Rule of four? Tradition of the U. S. Supreme Court whereby a vote of four justices grants certiorari, and the Court agrees to hear the case.
What is search and seizure?Search for and taking of persons and property as evidence of a crime.
What are specialized federal courts?Courts authorized to hear a limited range of cases, such as taxes or patents.
What is subject matter jurisdiction?Types of cases that courts have been authorized to hear and decide.

What is a treaty?Formal agreement between or among sovereign states creating rights and obligations under international law. In the United States, all treaties must be ratified by a two- thirds vote of the Senate.
What is a trial court?Judicial body with primarily original jurisdiction in civil or criminal cases. Juries are used and evidence is presented.
What is a writ of certiorari?Writ issued by the U.S. Supreme Court, at its discretion, to order a lower court to prepare the record of a case and send it to the Court for review. Most cases come to the Court as petitions for writs of certiorari.