What is an acquittal?Decision of the trial jury or judge that the defendant is not guilty.
What is attrition?Process by which criminal justice officials screen out some cases and advance others to the next level of decision making.
Define battery.Unlawful use of violence upon another. Battery always includes assault.
What is a Bifurcated trial?In criminal proceedings, a special two-part trial proceeding in which the issue of guilt is tried in the first step, and, if a conviction results, the appropriate sentence or applicable sentencing statute is determined in the second step.

Define burglary.Unlawful entry of any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel, with or without force, with intent to commit a felony or larceny.
What is a capital crime?Any crime punishable by death.
What is capital punishment?Use of the death penalty (that is, execution) as the punishment for the commission of a particular crime.
What is charge bargaining?A type of plea bargaining in which, in return for a guilty plea, the prosecutor allows the defendant to plead guilty to a less serious charge than the one originally filed.

What is a continuance?Delay in trial granted by the judge at the request of either attorney in a case.
Define conviction.Final judgment or sentence that the defendant is guilty as charged.
What is count bargaining?A type of plea bargaining in which the defendant pleads guilty to some, but not all, of the counts contained in the charging document, which reduces the potential sentence.
Who is a court reporter?Person present during judicial proceedings who records all testimony and other oral statements made during the proceedings.

What is a courtroom work group?Regular participants in the day-to-day activities of a particular courtroom. Members (judge, prosecutor, and defense attorney) interact on the basis of shared norms.
What is the criminal justice wedding cake?Model of the criminal justice process in which criminal cases form a four- tiered hierarchy with a few celebrated cases at the top and each descending layer increasing in size as its importance in the eyes of officials and the public diminishes.
What is cruel and unusual punishment?Punishment, by the government, that is prohibited by the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution.
What is culpability?Blameworthiness or responsibility in whole or in part for the commission of a crime. Guilty parties are said to be culpable.

What is de facto discrimination?Unequal treatment that exists in fact. Discrimination may exist in reality despite neutral laws.
What is de jure discrimination?Unequal treatment that is a result of law; as a result of official action.
What is determinate sentencing?Term of imprisonment, imposed by a judge, that has a specific number of years.
What is a fine?Sum of money to be paid to the state by a convicted person as punishment for an offense.

What did the Supreme Court hold in Furman v. Georgia?U. S. Supreme Court ruling (1972) that statutes leaving arbitrary and discriminatory discretion to juries in imposing the death sentence are in violation of the Eighth Amendment.
What is the geography of justice?Significant variations in the sentencing patterns of judges within the same political jurisdiction.
What is a good time reduction?Reduction of the time served in prison as a reward for not violating prison rules.
What did the Supreme Court hold in Gregg v. Georgia?U. S. Supreme Court ruling (1976) that (1) the death penalty is not, in itself, cruel and unusual punishment and (2) a two- part proceeding - one for the determination of innocence or guilt and the other for determining the sentence - is constitutional and meets the objections noted in Furman v. Georgia.

Define guilty.Word used by a defendant in entering a plea or by a jury in returning a verdict, indicating that the defendant is legally responsible as charged for a crime.
What is imprisonment?Placing a person in a prison, jail, or similar correctional facility as punishment for commit-ting a crime.
What is an indeterminate sentence?Sentence that has both a minimum and a maximum term of imprisonment, the actual length to be determined by a parole board.
Define manslaughter.Unlawful act of killing of a human being, characterized by the absence of premeditation or intent.

What is first degree murder?Killing of another with premeditation and intent. The killing of another during the commission of a felony, even though there was no premeditation or intent, is murder in the first degree and is called a ''felony murder.''
What is a nolo contendere plea?Latin phrase meaning ''I will not contest it.'' A defendant's please of ''no contest'' in a criminal case means that he or she does not directly admit guilt but submits to sentencing or other punishment.
What are normal penalties?Norms for proper sentencing based on the crime committed and the defendant's prior record.
What is a pardon?Act of executive clemency that has the effect of releasing an inmate from prison and/ or removing certain legal disabilities from persons convicted of crimes.

What is parole?Early release from prison on the condition of good behavior.
What is a parole board?Administrative body whose members are chosen by the governor to review the cases of prisoners eligible for release on parole. The board has the authority to release such persons and to return them to prison for violating the conditions of parole.
What is a penal code?Criminal law of a jurisdiction.
What is plea bargaining?Process through which a defendant pleads guilty to a criminal charge with the expectation of receiving some benefit from the state.

What is a plea of guilty?Confession of guilt to a criminal offense in open court.
What is a presentence investigation?Report submitted by a probation department to a judge containing information about the offender upon which the judge can base his or her sentencing decision.
What is a prior record?Defendant's previous history of arrests and criminal convictions.
What is a prison?Correctional facility for housing adults convicted of felony offenses.

Probation? Punishment for a crime that allows the offender to remain in the community without incarceration but subject to certain conditions.
What is a sentence?Punishment imposed on a defendant found guilty of committing a criminal act.
What is sentence bargaining?A type of plea bargaining in which the defendant pleads guilty knowing the sentence that will be imposed; the sentence in the sentence bar-gain is less than the maximum.
What is sentencing discrimination?Illegitimate influences in the sentencing process based on the characteristics of the defendant.

What are sentencing disparities?Unequal sentences resulting from the sentencing process itself.
What are sentencing guidelines?Attempt to reduce disparities and discrimination in sentencing by providing judges with a structure to guide their decisions.
What is a speedy trial?Refers to the right of the defendant to have a prompt trial, as guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution.