What is an antecedent variable?An independent variable that precedes other independent variables in time.
What is an arrow diagram?A pictorial representation of a researcher's explanatory scheme.
What is cross-level analysis?The use of data at one level of aggregation to make inferences at another level of aggregation.
What is a cross-tabulation?also called a contingency table, this array displays the joint frequencies and relative frequencies of two categorical (nominal or ordinal) variables

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What is a curvilinear relationship?when the relationship between independent and dependent variables depends on which interval or range of the independent variable; the relationship may change from positive to negative, vice-versa, or lessen or increase in strength/consistency

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What is a dependent variable?The phenomenon thought to be influenced, affected, or caused by some other phenomenon.

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What is a direct relationship?a relationship that goes in a positive direction (ex: rise in per capita GDP and increase in political rights)

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What is a directional hypothesis?A hypothesis that specifies the expected relationship between two or more variables.


What is ecological inference?The process of inferring a relationship between characteristics of individuals based on group or aggregate data.
What is a hypothesis?A tentative or provisional or unconfirmed statement that can (in principle) be verified.

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What is an independent variable?The phenomenon thought to influence, affect or cause some other phenomenon.

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What is an intervening variable?A variable coming between an independent variable and a dependent variable in an explanatory scheme.

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What is an inverse relationship?relationship that goes in a negative direction (ex: rise in age and decrease in likelihood of supporting gay marriage)

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What is a line chart?A popular way to show the relationship between an explanatory variable and an interval-level dependent variable. Values of the explanatory variable are plotted on the x-axis; corresponding values of the dependent variable are plotted on the y-axis.

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What is a linear relationship?increase in the independent variable correlates with consistent increase or decrease in the dependent variable

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What is a mean comparison table?a table that shows the mean of a dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable

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What is a negative relationship?A relationship in which the values of one variable increase as the values of another variable decrease.

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What is a positive relationship?A relationship in which the values of one variable increase (or decrease) as the values of another variable increase (or decrease).

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What is a relationship (a statistical relationship)?The association, dependence, or covariance of the values of one variable with the values of another variable.
What is a tautology?A hypothesis in which the independent and dependent variables are identical, making it impossible to disconfirm.