What is an antecedent variable? An independent variable that precedes other independent variables in time. What is an arrow diagram? A pictorial representation of a researcher's explanatory scheme. What is cross-level analysis? The use of data at one level of aggregation to make inferences at another level of aggregation. What is a cross-tabulation? also called a contingency table, this array displays the joint frequencies and relative frequencies of two categorical (nominal or ordinal) variablesReference page(s): 59

 What is a curvilinear relationship? when the relationship between independent and dependent variables depends on which interval or range of the independent variable; the relationship may change from positive to negative, vice-versa, or lessen or increase in strength/consistencyReference page(s): 65 What is a dependent variable? The phenomenon thought to be influenced, affected, or caused by some other phenomenon.Reference page(s): 50 What is a direct relationship? a relationship that goes in a positive direction (ex: rise in per capita GDP and increase in political rights)Reference page(s): 63 What is a directional hypothesis? A hypothesis that specifies the expected relationship between two or more variables.

 What is ecological inference? The process of inferring a relationship between characteristics of individuals based on group or aggregate data. What is a hypothesis? A tentative or provisional or unconfirmed statement that can (in principle) be verified.Reference page(s): 49 What is an independent variable? The phenomenon thought to influence, affect or cause some other phenomenon.Reference page(s): 50 What is an intervening variable? A variable coming between an independent variable and a dependent variable in an explanatory scheme.Reference page(s): 58

 What is an inverse relationship? relationship that goes in a negative direction (ex: rise in age and decrease in likelihood of supporting gay marriage)Reference page(s): 63 What is a line chart? A popular way to show the relationship between an explanatory variable and an interval-level dependent variable. Values of the explanatory variable are plotted on the x-axis; corresponding values of the dependent variable are plotted on the y-axis.Reference page(s): 63 What is a linear relationship? increase in the independent variable correlates with consistent increase or decrease in the dependent variableReference page(s): 64 What is a mean comparison table? a table that shows the mean of a dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variableReference page(s): 62

 What is a negative relationship? A relationship in which the values of one variable increase as the values of another variable decrease.Reference page(s): 64 What is a positive relationship? A relationship in which the values of one variable increase (or decrease) as the values of another variable increase (or decrease).Reference page(s): 64 What is a relationship (a statistical relationship)? The association, dependence, or covariance of the values of one variable with the values of another variable. What is a tautology? A hypothesis in which the independent and dependent variables are identical, making it impossible to disconfirm.