What is an arraignment?Stage of the criminal process in which the defendant is formally informed of the charges and is allowed to enter a plea.
Define arrest.Physical taking into custody of a suspected law violator.
Define assault.Violent attempt or threat to hurt another.
What is bail?Security (money or bail bond) given as a guarantee that a released prisoner will appear at trial.


What is a bench warrant?Order issued by the court itself, or from the bench, for the arrest of a person; it is not based (as is an arrest warrant) on a probable cause showing that a person has committed a crime, but only on the person
What is a bond?Security (money or bail bond) given as a guarantee that a released prisoner will appear at trial.
What is a booking?Process of photographing, fingerprinting, and recording a suspect's identifying data subsequent to arrest.
Define ''bound over''.If, at the preliminary hearing, the judge believes that sufficient probable cause exists to hold a criminal defendant, the accused is said to be bound over for trial. Also called a bind over.


What is a capias?Bench warrant. A bench warrant is an order issued by a court to arrest someone for failure to appear in court as directed.
What is a charge?In criminal justice, an allegation that one or more specified person(s) committed a specific offense.
What is a charging document?Information, indictment, or com-plaint that states the formal criminal charge against one or more named defendant(s).
What is a clearance rate?Percentage of crimes known to the police that they believe they have solved through an arrest.


What is a complaint?In civil law, the first paper filed in a lawsuit. In criminal law, a charge signed by the victim that a person named has committed a specified offense.
What is corporal punishment?Punishment applied to the body, such as whipping or branding.
Define crime.Any violation of the criminal law.
Who is a defendant?Person against whom a lawsuit or prosecution is brought.


What is the exclusionary rule?Judiciary-created rule holding that evidence obtained through violations of the constitutional rights of the criminal defendant must be excluded from the trial.
What is extradition?Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Grand jury? Group of citizens who decide if persons accused of crimes should be indicted (true bill) or not (no true bill).
What are index crimes?Specific crimes used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in reporting the incidence of crime in the United States in the Uniform Crime Reports.


What is an indictment?A grand jury's formal accusation of a criminal offense made against a person.
Define indigent.Person who is too poor to hire a lawyer.
What is an information?Formal accusation charging someone with the commission of a crime, signed by a prosecuting attorney, that has the effect of bringing the person to trial.
What is an initial appearance?Appearance before a judge during which the accused is informed of the charges, given his or her constitutional rights, informed of the amount of bail, and given a date for a preliminary hearing.


Define insanity.Lack of criminal responsibility. A defect of reason caused by a disease of the mind such that a per-son did not know at the time of an act that the act was wrong and/ or did not know the nature and quality of the act, according to a prevailing legal doctrine.
What is a jail?Local, municipal, or county institution used to house those awaiting trial, those convicted of a misdemeanor, and those convicted of a felony and awaiting transfer to a prison.
What did the Supreme Court hold in Mapp v. Ohio?U. S. Supreme Court ruling (1961) that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment must be excluded from use in state as well as federal trials.
What did the Supreme Court hold in Miranda v. Arizona?U. S. Supreme Court decision (1966) holding that, prior to interrogation, the police must inform the suspect of his or her right to remain silent.


What is a no true bill?The decision of a grand jury not to indict a person for a crime.
What is a preliminary hearing?Pretrial hearing to determine if there is probable cause to hold the accused for the grand jury.
What is preventive detention?Holding a defendant in custody pending trial in the belief that he or she is likely to commit further criminal acts or fee the jurisdiction.
What is probable cause?Standard used to determine if a crime has been committed and if there is sufficient evidence to believe a specific individual committed it.


Who is a prosecutor?Public official who represents the state in a criminal action.
What is recognizance?The releasing of an accused person from custody without requiring a property or money bond.
What is release on recognizance (ROR)?Release of an accused from jail on his or her own obligation rather than on a monetary bond.
What is robbery?Unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another, by force or the threat of force.


What is a search warrant?Written order, issued by judicial authority, directing a law enforcement officer to search for personal property and, if found, to bring it before the court.
What is statutory rape?Carnal knowledge of a child below the age fixed by statute. The child lacks legal capacity to consent, so the crime can be committed where no force is used.
What is a true bill?Bill of indictment by a grand jury.
What are Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)?Annual statistical tabulation of ''crimes known to the police'' and ''crimes cleared by arrest,'' published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.


What is a warrant?Writ, issued by a court, authorizing the seizure of a certain person or a certain property.